Walter Joseph Phillips RCA


Setting The Scene

The work of Walter J. Phillips embodies local landscapes and human activities in those landscapes using a vocabulary forged in Japanese woodcut processes. Good art is rooted in the particular and Phillips’ unequivocal way of seeing provides evidence of his enduring attention to place and his self-conscious awareness of the art of past times.

The diverse content of people and scenery in the works of this exhibition provide a perspective on the artist’s range of interests within the context of his natural and human worlds. He sets the scene with his observations and offers glimpses of this milieu through the use of light and color.

Walter J. Phillips was internationally acclaimed during his lifetime for his proficiency in the medium of the colour woodcut derived from the Japanese method. Through the skillful superimposition of many layers of transparent water-based inks, he created images of great beauty, subtlety, and depth.

Walter Phillips was born 1884 at Barton-on-Humber in Lincolnshire, England, the son of Reverend John Phillips, a Methodist minister. In his teens, he attended the Birmingham School of Art once a week, studying under Edward R. Taylor. He went to South Africa for a few years in the hope of earning enough money there to be able to study art in Paris, but returned with little more than he left with. By 1908 he had worked as a commercial artist in Manchester and London, then from 1908 to 1911 served as art master at Bishop Woodworth School in Salisbury, England. In 1911, he held his first solo show in Salisbury which was both critically and financially successful. Eventually, he and his wife Gladys Pitcher, whom he had married in December 1910, decided to emigrate to Canada, arriving in Winnipeg in June, 1913. Shortly after his arrival, a fellow artist he met taught him etching technique and sold him his tools.

From 1915 to 1918, he produced etchings in very small editions, subsequently switching to colour woodcut prints, a medium he found more to his liking. During the summers of 1917 and 1919, Phillips taught at the University of Wisconsin, and by then his works had commanded national and international attention. By 1923 he had published forty-two colour woodcuts, and in a burst of productivity between 1926 and 1928 he produced thirty-nine. By now, he had well established his own pattern of making woodcuts: a graphite sketch; next, a finished watercolour; another sketch to compose the woodcut, and then the final print.

Phillips was so highly regarded that during the Great Depression he was one of a handful of artists who could live off the sale of his paintings and woodcuts. Anne Newlands indicates his "reputation as Canada's foremost colour-wood-cut artist between the wars (Newslands 246)." From 1925 to 1935 his subjects were mainly from the Prairies, but by 1946 most of his subjects were from the Rocky Mountains. He also continued to be a prolific book illustrator. In 1940 he became a staff member of the Banff Summer School of Fine Arts and in 1941 moved to Calgary to take up the position of instructor at the Institute of Technology and Art, where he stayed until 1949.

In 1953 he moved to Banff where he and his wife built a house along St. Julien on Tunnel Mountain. By 1958 Phillips' eyesight began failing, and in 1960 he retired to Victoria. In 1963, Walter Joseph Phillips died in Victoria at the age of 78. His ashes were scattered in the Alberta mountains he loved so much.


Ainslie, Patricia. "Images Of The Land, Canadian Block Prints, 1919-1945." Calgary: Glenbow Museum, 1984.

Boulet, Roger. "The Tranquility and the Turbulence: The Life and Works of Walter J. Phillips." Markham, ON.: M.B. Loates Publishing, 1981.

Boyanoski, Christine. "A Century Of Printmaking In Canada: A Selection of Prints from the Canadian Historical Collection of the Art Gallery of Ontario." Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 1986, p.4-5.

Cochran, Bente Roed. "Printmaking In Alberta 1945-1985." Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 1989.

Newslands, Anne. "Canadian Paintings, Prints and Drawings." Richmond Hill, ON: Firefly Books, 2007.

Phillips, Walter J. and Frederick Niven. "Colour In The Canadian Rockies." Toronto: Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd., 1937.

Reid, Dennis. "A Concise History of Canadian Painting (Third Edition)." Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Also see: Phillips in Print: The Selected Writings of Walter J. Phillips on Canadian Nature and Art.